Although Thailand certainly first received domesticated rice from China–archaeological data indicates that until about 300 BCE, the dominant type was O. japonica–contact with India about 300 BCE, led to the establishment of a rice regime that relied on wetland systems of agriculture, and using O. indica. The National Crop Gene Bank in the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) has conserved 64,269 accessions of rice germplasm. japonica), sometimes called sinica rice, is one of the two major domestic varieties of Asian rice.Japonica rice is extensively cultivated and consumed in China, Japan, and Korea, whereas in most other regions indica rice  is the dominant type of rice. Japonica vs Indica Rice. Using whole genome sequencing, other researchers have also placed Korean weedy rice into the same two subgroups ( He et al., 2017 ). When the indica and japonica subspecies are pooled, the cultivars have 77.0% of diversity in comparison to the wild progenitor. The indica and japonica rice (Oryza sativa) subspecies differ in nitrate (NO 3-) assimilation capacity and nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE).Here, we show that a major component of this difference is conferred by allelic variation at OsNR2, a gene encoding a NADH/NADPH-dependent NO 3-reductase (NR). Sticky Rice. It is usually grown in cooler subtropics and temperate climates, such as Japan, Portugal, Spain, USSR, Italy, and France. The indica variety of rice, which is most often long-grained and aromatic, is far more widely consumed than the typically short- or medium-grained rice of the japonica variety. In addition to high yielding varieties, China was the first country to develop and deploy hybrid rice for commercial cultivation in 1976. So the more it bites, the more sweet taste increases. The eRice database is dedicated to providing efficient and reliable epigenomic and genomic resources for both japonica (Nip) and indica (93‐11) rice cultivars. Across the three planting years, the average grain yield of japonica/indica hybrid rice was higher than that of japonica rice by 75.6% at N0, 57.2% at N150, 41.1% at N225, 38.3% at N300, and 45.8% at N375. Japonica rice (O. sativa subsp. The history of indica rice dispersal appears more complicated, moving into China around 2,000 years ago. Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), an important cereal crop worldwide, was domesticated from its wild ancestor 8000 years ago.During its long-term cultivation and evolution under diverse agroecological conditions, Asian cultivated rice has differentiated into indica and japonica subspecies. Rice varieties are often classified as so-called Indica, Japonica and Javanica groups on the basis of morphological variations. The rice mechanical transplanting technology including mechanical equipment and seedling raising technology widely applied in northern China was derived from Japan based on conventional japonica rice, which was restricted applied in indica varieties and hybrid rice with double season and multiple cropping system in southern China [4,5,6,7,8,9]. Weedy rice from South Korea (Korean weedy rice) is composed of two main subgroups based on population structure analysis: indica-like and temperate japonica-like (Vigueira et al., 2019). Japonica varieties have more superior grain quality than indica rice in terms of higher head rice rates and gel consistency, lower chalky rice rates and chalkiness degree, and lower amylose contents, which may explain why the Chinese prefer japonica rice. Two of the types sequenced are Indica and Japonica, the japonica varieties have narrow dark green leaves, medium-height tillers, and short to intermediate plant height. We model the prehistoric dispersals of two rice varieties, japonica and proto-indica, across Asia using empirical evidence drawn from an archaeobotanical dataset of 400 sites from mainland East, Southeast and South Asia. Starting material for broken rice can be nonwaxy or waxy types of the two subspecies indica and japonica rice. Indica-japonica hybrid rice cultivars show great yield potential but poor eating quality and require more nitrogen (N) input relative to japonica rice. Comparative genomic analysis within Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) populations has greatly enriched our knowledge regarding rice domestication and the divergence of the indica and japonica subspecies, while study on genomic regions associated with improvement within the indica subspecies is still limited.Here, through combined investigation of 2,429 indica cultivar genomes from … Comparing with wild rice, indica and japonica displayed the higher F ST value (0.93). in the indica and japonica rice subpopulations compared with the whole rice population. About Oryza sativa Indica. The rice bran of TN9 had the highest TDF (33.6%, p<0.05) and TCS3, the lowest (23.3%, p<0.05). The starchy endosperm consists of thin-walled cells filled completely with compound starch granules of 3–10 μm in size and spherical protein bodies of 0.5–4 μm. While Japonica rice features round and thick grains, the Indica rice has longer and thinner grains. Indica rice and japonica rice were differentiated and developed over long-term evolution in different climates and ecological environments, while transgenic rice was artificially created by inserting a gene fragment that could be stably inherited by offspring. Oryza sativa Indica is one of the two most commonly cultivated sub-species of rice (along with O. sativa Japonica) and is the most widely grown in the hot climates of Southern Asia.The genome of Indica is very similar to that of Japonica, which is generally restricted to temperate climes such as Japan. Right after Japonica comes the second major Asian rice variety, Indica rice. When some morphological and physiological characters (Oka 1958; Cheng 1985) as well as isozymes (Glaszmann et al. Additionally, some matrix protein is present. Data source Beijing Genomics Institute The TDF content of Japonica rice bran was higher than the TDF content of Indica. Indica varieties are predominantly consumed in the areas with vitamin A deficiency. The genome of Indica is very similar to that of Japonica, which is generally restricted to temperate climes such as Japan. Across the four rice varieties, N uptake increased significantly with increased N-fertilizer rates at all the growth stages (p < 0.05). Basmati Rice. Japonica Rice. These two rice varieties are the complete opposites of each other. It is a group of rice varieties from northern and eastern China grown extensively in some areas of the world. Japonica rice grains are also harder than those of Indica rice. Soon after, tropical japonica rice reached Southeast Asia, where it rapidly diversified, starting about 2,500 years ago. Indica and japonica are the two-main subspecies of Asian cultivated rice and several studies have reported differences between japonica and indica … Rice is raised most often as an annual plant, though in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial plant and produce a crop for up to 30 years. A total of 3843 primary variants were detected from 412 samples by using cp reference genomes compared with whole rice genomes. Indica and japonica rice exhibit unique eco-logical adaptations and agronomically useful traits. Moreover, it is "stickiness" although it has the big feature which is not in Indica rice. Abstract The spread of rice black-streaked dwarf disease, which has emerged as a major problem on winter wheat and the two summer rice crops (early indica and late japonica) grown in central and southern Zhejiang province, China, is documented from 1995 to 2007.The late japonica crop suffered the most: up to 64 640 ha were affected with estimated losses of c. 120 000 t grain per year. The F\1\ hybrids between varieties belonging to the latter two types, however, have normal F\1\ fertility (Morinaga 1958). Although quite hardy, Indica Rices yield less than Japonica Rice types. The indica and japonica rice subspecies have ∼70.8 and 62.1%, respectively, of the microsatellite diversity found in their wild progenitor, and the indica subspecies has higher diversity than the japonica subspecies at 37 of the loci. Of these germ-plasms, 13.1% were wild rice, and indica and japonica types occupies 83.5% of whole collection. The paper reveals there were extrinsic factors influencing genome diversity, with temperature being a major abiotic factor. Of these, 13 loci were closely linked to known panicle architecture genes, and 17 novel loci were repeatedly identified in different environments. It is found in the cooler zones of the subtropics and in the temperate zones. In total, 30 loci were associated with these traits. 6 a). Indica Rice is primarily a lowland rice type which grows most productively in the flooded rice paddies of equatorial Asia. Japonica Rice accounts for more than 10% of total global rice trade and are higher yielding and more disease resistant than most Indica varieties. However, reproductive barriers between the two sub-species such as hybrid sterility, hybrid breakdown, seg-regation distortion, and restricted recombination hinder cross-breeding attempts between the two subspecies. Both indica ("Hsien") and japonica ("Keng") rice types are grown in China. Specifically, to carry the invention beyond its initial “proof-of-concept” status in a Japonica rice ( Oryza sativa ) cultivar, we report here on two transformed elite Indica varieties (IR64 and MTL250) plus one Japonica variety Taipei 309. 1). Assembly. However, the effect of N levels on the eating quality of indica-japonica hybrid rice is little known. Japonica is one of the two major eco-geographical races of O. sativa (O. sativa japonica), the other is Indica. Taxonomy ID 39946. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol content were studied. Oryza sativa contains two major subspecies: the sticky, short-grained japonica or sinica variety, and the nonsticky, long-grained indica rice  variety. To understand the genetic diversity and indica-japonica differentiation in Bangladesh rice varieties, a total of 151 accessions of rice varieties mostly Bangladesh traditional varieties including Aus, Boro, broadcast Aman, transplant Aman and Rayada varietal groups were genotyped using 47 rice nuclear SSRs. rice germplasms for their genetic diversity and evolution-ary research in chloroplast level (Fig. Oryza sativa Indica is one of the two most commonly cultivated sub-species of rice (along with O. sativa Japonica) and is the most widely grown in the hot climates of Southern Asia. Evolutionary distance of microorganisms was compared to find the main factor differentiating the richness of soil microorganisms. In this study, a chromosome segment substitution line (CSSL) rice population carrying contiguous chromosomal segments of japonica Nipponbare in the genetic background of indica 9311 was developed. Brown basmati rice. Moreover, japonica and indica subspecies differed significantly not only in the relative abundances of metabolites but also in their corresponding metabolic association networks. Developing new population types based on interspecific introgressions has been suggested to facilitate the discovery of novel allelic sources for traits of agronomic importance. Basmati is a long-grained and aromatic rice variety that is popular on the Indian subcontinent. This finding indicates a breeding barrier may exist between indica and japonica and they may be isolated from wild rice for a longer period (Fig. Indica Rice Varieties. Since Japonica rice contains many moisture when it is cooked, it is soft and gloss comes out.